Why does Mexico recognize Nicolás Maduro and what is the Estrada Doctrine?

The principles that govern this doctrine consist of the respect for the self-determination of the peoples and the Non Intervention in Internal Affairs of the States.

Mexico is one of the countries that recognizes the regime of Nicolás Maduro because it adheres to the self-determination of the peoples contemplated in the Estrada Doctrine. 

The Estrada Doctrine governs the performance of Mexico with the rest of the countries of the world, as well as the way in which it will respond to its allies in extraordinary situations.

The principles that govern this doctrine consist of the respect for the self-determination of the peoples and the Non Intervention in Internal Affairs of the States. 

The first point refers to the right of each people to “accept, maintain or replace their governments or authorities” and the second point that Mexico will not take sides before abrupt changes in internal affairs.

“Mexico does not pronounce itself in the sense of granting recognition because it considers that this is a degrading practice that, on injuring the sovereignty of other nations, places them in the event that their internal affairs can be qualified (…) by other governments” , it is read in the doctrine.
Likewise, the Estrada Doctrine states that Mexico will not recognize governments that assume power by means that are not provided for in the constitution of each country.

Definition of Estrada Doctrine

The historical context

In 1913 Mexico was in the midst of the revolutionary process and the seizure of power depended to a large extent on the possible political support of the United States, a country that is not only the natural neighbor but also already presented by then as the most powerful country on the planet.
In the revolutionary context the president and the vice president of the nation were arrested and finally committed suicide by the pressures received from the US. Given this circumstance, there was a need to adopt a measure to protect national sovereignty, as there was fear of an interference by the northern neighbor in domestic politics.
In 1917 Mexico has a new constitution and is in the middle of the postrevolutionary stage, but there was still a period of political effervescence. In this situation it was imperative that the nation obtain a clear international recognition and a political independence without fissures.

The Estrada Doctrine is based on the principle of non-intervention and respect for the national sovereignty of peoples.

In 1930 Gerardo Estrada, secretary of foreign relations, presented the declaration of the doctrine that bears his name. Its fundamental contribution is the following: no government requires the recognition of other nations to assume its own sovereignty. This approach involves an explicit rejection of any form of foreign intervention in the affairs of the government of a nation.
Most historians agree that this doctrine is based on the rejection of the international policy of the United States, which had already promoted the non-recognition of some foreign governments, especially those that had arisen from revolutionary processes or military coups.
According to the first, the nations of the American continent have to refuse to recognize any government stemming from a revolutionary process and, therefore, the Tobar Doctrine defends a position of indirect interventionism. The Monroe Doctrine promotes the nonintervention of the European nations in the American continent and, on the other hand, strengthens a position of privilege of the United States over the rest of the American nations.
The Estrada Doctrine opposes both and with it promotes a respectful attitude towards the internal affairs of Mexico and of any other nation.Definition of Injection
The verb graft has several uses. In botany one talks about grafting plants, it can refer to putting one thing in another, to the introduction of a word or a phrase in a writing or to the interference in other people’s affairs. However, the usual use of the substantive interference refers to the idea of ​​intervention of one country in the affairs of another.
This concept is normally used in the context of political and economic relations between nations. Thus, if the government of a nation thinks of a different nation, it is very likely that it will be accused of interference.
There are two possible approaches. One of them has a negative meaning and, on the contrary, the other is based on a positive approach.

The sovereignty of a nation must be governed by the will of its citizens and without the interference of other nations

In International Law there is a general principle, that of non-intervention or non-interference. With this principle it is understood that it is not legitimate for one nation to impose its will on another. Imperialism, colonialism or the various forms of imposition of the law of the strongest are proposals that oppose this principle.
In some cases there is a non-explicit interference, as may occur in relation to free trade agreements, which are sometimes considered as silent interference.

The interference of the United States in Latin America

Since the United States became a great world power there have been several episodes of interference in Latin American countries, both politically and economically. Thus, the regimes of Pinochet in Chile, of Batista in Cuba or the control of the Panama Canal are clear examples of US interventionism throughout history.


Humanitarian interference

Sometimes military intervention is carried out in a state not with the intention of occupying it but precisely to free it from a violent situation. This type of intervention or interference is due to humanitarian causes.
Imagine that a group of countries decide to ally to overthrow the tyrannical regime of another nation and in this way put an end to a dictatorship that subjects the whole population. In this type of circumstances the interference would have a humanitarian component and, therefore, it would be a non-oppressive intervention but a liberation.

Source: noticiamx

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